The "gig" economy might not be the new frontier for America's workforce after all.

From Uber to TaskRabbit to YourMechanic, so-called gig work — task-oriented work offered by online apps — has been promoted as providing the flexibility and independence that traditional jobs don't offer. Yet the evidence is growing that over time, these jobs don't deliver the financial returns many workers expect.

And they don't appear to be reshaping the workforce. Over the past two years, pay for gig workers has dropped, and they are earning a growing share of their income elsewhere, a new study finds. Most Americans who earn income through online platforms do so for only a few months each year, according to the study by the JPMorgan Chase Institute released Monday.

The study, along with other research, points to three conclusions about the gig economy:

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